Newsletter of the J.P. Harrington Conference Number 6

Newsletter of the J.P. Harrington Conference

Number 6:February 1994

At the first working conference on the linguistic and ethnographic papers of John P. Harrington, held in Santa Barbara in June 1992, plans were made for further meetings and projects, as well as for maintaining and expanding the network of Harrington scholars. The Newsletter of the J. P. Harrington Conference serves as the vehicle for communicating information about these and other Harrington-related activities. The Newsletter is published at irregular intervals and is distributed free to anyone interested. To be placed on the mailing list contact the editor: Victor Golla, Dept. of Ethnic Studies, Humboldt State University, Arcata, CA 95521. Telephone: (707) 826-4324 or 677-3361. Fax: (707) 826-5555. E-mail: or golla@calstate.bitnet.


The 3rd Working Conference on the Papers of J. P. Harrington will take place Friday through Sunday, August 5-7, 1994, at Mission San Juan Capistrano, California, at the invitation of the Juaneño Band of Mission Indians, Acjachemen Nation. Local arrangements are being coordinated by Joyce Perry, 4955 Paseo Segovia, Irvine, CA 92715. A Call for Papers will be enclosed in the next JPH Conference Newsletter, this Spring.

It is particularly appropriate that a conference devoted to Harrington's work should take place at San Juan Capistrano. Between 1932 and 1935 Harrington (who kept a house in nearby Santa Ana) worked extensively with speakers of Juaneño and closely-related Luiseño, in particular with Anastacia de Majel, one of the last fluent Juaneño speakers (see Papers of JPH [microfilm] vol. 3, reels 121-129; Guide to the Fieldnotes vol. 3, pp. 91-95). During 1936 Harrington's nephew, Arthur, continued the work by making nearly 150 aluminum disc recordings of Doña Anastacia. Harrington also published a lavishly annotated edition of the Franciscan missionary Boscana's early-19th century account of Juaneño traditional religion(Chinigchinich (Chi-ñi'ch-ñich): a Revised and Annotated Version of Alfred Robinson's Translation of Father Geronimo Boscana's Historical Account of the Beliefs, Usages, Customs and Extravagancies of the Indians of the Mission of San Juan Capistrano, Called the Acagchemem Tribe. Santa Ana: Fine Arts Press, 1933).

In recent years, members of the Juaneño Band have been using Harrington's notes and recordings to help regain their traditional culture and language. Arthur Harrington, who now lives in retirement in Claremont, has expressed his willingness to help in this effort, and he plans to attend the August conference.


The second conference on the papers of John P. Harrington was held at the Smithsonian Institution, Tuesday and Wednesday, November 16-17, 1993, hosted by the National Anthropological Archives. Conference sessions were held in spacious and comfortable rooms in the Smithsonian's Ripley Center. The 25 registrants included: Alice Anderton (Norman, OK); David Belardes (San Juan Capistrano, CA); Joan Berman (Humboldt State University, Arcata, CA); William Bright (University of Colorado, Boulder); Wallace Chafe (UC-Santa Barabara); David Earle (Palmdale, CA); James R. Glenn (National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution); Ives Goddard (Smithsonian Institution); Victor Golla (Humboldt State University, Arcata, CA); Scott Hicks (Cutting Corporation, Bethesda, Maryland); Leanne Hinton (UC-Berkeley); William H. Jacobsen, Jr. (University of Nevada, Reno); M. Dale Kinkade (U of British Columbia); Sally McLendon (Hunter College, NYC); Marianne Mithun (UC-Santa Barbara); Marc Okrand (Washington, DC); Joyce Perry (Irvine, CA); Louis Robles (Long Beach, CA); Mary Elizabeth Ruwell (National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution); Gerri Schaad (Alexandria, VA); William C. Sturtevant (Smithsonian Institution); Sylvia Vane (Ballena Press, Menlo Park, CA); Rev. Eugene R. Wahl (Coon Rapids, MN); Suzanne Wash (UC-Santa Barbara); and Laurel Watkins (Colorado College).

The presentations included:

Alice Anderton, "The Spanish of J. P. Harrington's Kitanemuk Notes, Part II" [All of us who have worked with Harrington's California fieldnotes have had to cope with his translations of native terms into a variety of Spanish that often includes non-standard words, usages, and spellings. I struggled with this unfamiliar Spanish while working with Harrington's Kitanemuk notes (ca. 1916-17), and attempted to find translations for the more obscure words in dictionaries of regionalisms, ethnographic works, nature guides, and in the notes of Maurice Zigmond. I reported my findings at the 1992 Harrington Conference in Santa Barbara. I now offer an expanded list of obscure terms, culled from sources which have come to my attention since the 1992 paper.]

William H. Jacobsen, Jr., "Harrington's Encounter with Washo" [On one day in February 1915, Harrington transcribed about 100 Washo words and phrases from a single informant. This paper examines this data with special reference to: phonetic accuracy (quite good), misunderstandings or semantic deviations from other attestations, and grammatical categories either attested or not.]

Marianne Mithun, "Sibilant Harmony in Chumash" [An interesting feature of the Chumash languages, remarked on by Harrington, is sibilant harmony - a process whereby all sibilants within a word are either apical (s, c, . . . ) or palatal (s™, c™, . . . ). As Harrington, and later Beeler, noted, the process apparently became less productive over time, even over the period of attestation by these two (ca. 1910-60). The question will be raised here of the relation between the apparent fading of harmony and the elicitation process.

Suzanne Wash, "Harrington's Notations and Linguistic Structure" [Harrington used various notations when writing down a language. Thus he used "gld" to note that a segment is glottalized. Or, sometimes he would note that a certain segment was not to be confused with another segment, e.g., that k (voiceless velar stop) is not K (voiceless uvular stop [q]). One might be tempted to attribute these to Harrington's compulsiveness for phonetic accuracy. However, using examples from Harrington's Barbareño Chumash corpus, I will show that these and other notations reveal an awareness of how the language worked at various levels in the grammar.]

Laurel Watkins, "Parker McKenzie on Harrington's Kiowa" [Harrington's work on Kiowa - cf. his Vocabulary of the Kiowa Language (1928), Three Kiowa Texts (1946), and Popular Account of the Kiowa Indian Language (1948) - viewed in the light of his Kiowa co-worker Parker McKenzie's extensive input and critiques. ]

Mary Elizabeth Ruwell & James Glenn, "Recent Work with the Harrington Materials at the NAA."

Victor Golla, "Update on the Harrington Handbook Project."

Video screening: "How Coyote Stole The Sun" (Marjorie W. Cummins)


The special issue of Anthropological Linguistics, "J. P. Harrington and his Legacy", edited by Victor Golla, is now in press and will reach subscribers about the beginning of April. The issue contains an introductory essay by Golla on Harrington and his notes, and eight papers based on presentations at the 1992 Harrington Conference in Santa Barbara. These include: Catherine A. Callaghan, "Encounter with J. P. Harrington"; James R. Glenn, "The Sound Recordings of John Peabody Harrington: A Report on their Disposition and State of Preservation"; John R. Johnson, Amy Miller, & Linda Agren, "The Papers of John Peabody Harrington at the Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History"; M. Dale Kinkade & William R. Seaburg, "Harrington and Salish"; Kathryn A. Klar, "'Precious Beyond the Power of Money to Buy': John P. Harrington's Field Work with Rosario Cooper"; Anthony P. Grant & David J. Costa, "Some Observations on J. P. Harrington's Peoria Vocabulary"; and Alice J. Anderton, "Kitanemuk: Reconstruction of a Dead Phonology Using J. P. Harrington's Transcriptions" and "The Spanish of J. P. Harrington's Kitanemuk Notes." Individual copies of the issue may be purchased for $15 from the Managing Editor, Anthropological Linguistics, Student Building 130, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405. The cost of a subscription to AL is $25/year (4 issues).


For over a decade the audio specialists of the Cutting Corporation (in Bethesda, Maryland) have been helping the National Anthropological Archives conserve the extensive collection of disc recordings made by Harrington and his assistants in the 1930s and early 1940s. (For a list of the languages recorded see the JPH Conference Newsletter #3 [July 1992] or the article by James Glenn in the forthcoming JPH issue of Anthropological Linguistics noted above.) At the present time, the only way researchers can gain access to these extremely valuable recordings is by having Cutting prepare tape masters on a disc-by-disc basis, with their own funding. Scott Hicks of the Cutting Corporation has prepared the following guide for interested researchers.

The J. P. Harrington collection of aluminum discs. recorded in the American West during the late 1930s and early 1940s, represents one of the most immediate sources of Native American culture. These oral histories have preserved the languages, folklore, religions, and the ways of life of various nations and tribes. The original discs are stored in Washington, D.C., at the National Anthropological Archives (NAA), Smithsonian Institution. Reproductions of the discs are made at the Cutting Corporation studios in nearby Bethesda, Maryland.

Cutting's sound preservation studio, staffed by specially trained engineers, protects the Harrington discs by cleaning them and preserves the recorded information by transferring it onto long-lasting reel-to-reel magnetic tape. The reel-to-reel tapes are then re-recorded onto cassettes for reference use.

The following steps should be followed when making arrangements to acquire tape copies of Harrington discs:

1. First, you should ask the NAA for a list of Harrington sound recordings for the language or languages you are interested in. The NAA staff will do their utmost to respond to your inquiry in a timely manner. You should write or phone: James Harwood, National Anthropological Archives, NHB, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 20560 (tel: 202/357-1976).

2. The printout you will receive from the NAA will give you details on each of the discs. Every disc is identified by its own inventory number. For many discs a description of the contents is given, although for some discs this information is sketchy or entirely lacking. Some discs may already have been transferred to tape. If so, this will be indicated on the printout. Copies of these recordings may be obtained directly from the Smithsonian for a small processing fee.

3. For discs that have not yet been transferred to tape, once you have made your selection you should contact the Cutting Corporation (not the NAA) to place your order. Write or call: The Cutting Corporation, c/o Scott Hicks, 4940 Hampden Lane, Suite 300, Bethesda, MD 20814 (tel: 301/654-2887). In placing your order, make sure you specify the inventory number of each of the recordings you want transferred to tape. Cutting will make the necessary arrangements with the Smithsonian for transportation of the original discs to and from the studios.

We should note that Cutting's charges are reasonable, but may run to $75 or more for each disc, depending on the length of the recording and the conditi on of the disc. The principal cost is for the time of the sound technician. Scott Hicks at Cutting will be happy to talk to customers about the process, and welcomes special inquiries.


One of the highlights of the Smithsonian meeting was the showing of the video, How Coyote Stole the Sun , produced by the Learning Resources Center of Fresno City College. The video supplements Marjorie W. Cummins' book of the same name, which was noted in the February 1993 JPH Newsletter. The video is a retelling of a Yokuts myth that was collected by JPH in 1916 from "Tachi Tom," and the script is largely based on a manuscript of Carobeth's that Mrs. Cummins found among JPH's notes. Making inspired use of images of the landscape and fauna of the San Joaquin Valley, the video conveys a vivid sense of the traditional story (parts of which we hear in the background being recited in Tachi Yokuts). The video may be ordered directly from Mrs. Cummins for $16.16 (price includes sales tax). Also available are the book ($19.29); an earlier book by Mrs. Cummins, The Tachi Yokuts ($19.29); and a cassette tape of songs to accompany both books ($16.16). Add $1 for shipping. Send orders to: Marjorie W. Cummins, 2064 Carter Way, Hanford, CA 93230 (tel: 209/584-7576).


* Frances Marr Wade, #234, 343 West Amerige, Fullerton, CA 92632:

I am Jack Marr's sister and knew Dr. John P. Harrington very well in the 1930s. He was our neighbor in Santa Ana, and our whole family helped him in different ways during the years we knew him.

The house we lived in was actually a duplex, and Dr. Harrington occupied the other half. We would often hear him and his Indian visitors talking and singing old Indian songs, even though the walls were thick and well insulated. It seemed that he wanted the amplifier on his recording machine turned up loud enough to assure that the aluminum records he was making would last a long time. I am sure that he never imagined that, all these years later, those records would be put on tapes and made available as they are today.

I think that one of the reasons that Dr. Harrington took us into his inner sanctum of secrecy and allowed us to assist him was that we were already an Indian-oriented family. Our mother and father had operated a large trading post on the Papago Indian Reservation in Arizona, where my brother Jack was born in 1921. I attended the Indian school there, and other than a few BIA employees we were the only white family for miles around. Our mother was also the local Postmaster and always got along fabulously with Indian people. Later on, here in California, she did some sound recording for Dr. Harrington and lived as a house guest for several months with Adan Castillo and his wife on the Soboba Reservation. (She is listed in the Guides to the JPH materials as Blanche Seeley.)

Dr. Harrington was by far the most eccentric person I ever knew. Athough he was a very pleasant man who always seemed to have a smile on his face, he was so secretive! Rarely did we see him at his house next door without some Indians he'd brought from somewhere, to record or to take notes from on those long white sheets of paper. Once, when I was leaving our house with a group of friends to go to a dance in Balboa, I met him coming out his door. He asked me where I was going. When I told him it was to a dance, he shook his head and said, "What a shame!" I suppose he considered dancing a terrible waste of the time that I could be using to record Indian languages.

* Richard Keeling, 3725 S. Topanga Cyn. Blvd., Malibu, CA 90265:

My wife, Masako, has translated the gist of Prof. Miyaoka's essay [in the Japanese translation of Carobeth Laird's Encounter Wih an Angry God, Sanseido, 1992] for me. It turns out to be not just about Harrington but rather his whole intellectual inheritance. Masako translated the title as "The Great People Around Harrington: the Golden Era of American Anthropology" and the contents as follows: (1) Preface; (2) The Founders ofAmerican Anthropology: President Jefferson and Morgan; (3) Establishing the Research System (Methodology); (4) The Bureau of American Ethnology; (5) Powell, the Evolutionist; (6) Boas, the Father of American Anthropology; (7) Boas and the BAE; (8) Fieldwork and Integration of Language Families; (9) Students of Boas: Kroeber and Sapir; (10) Harrington; (11) (Harrington's) Relation to the Boas Group; (12) The Last Speaker: The Case of Esselen; and (13) The Significance of Harrington's Fieldwork.

* Jan Timbrook, Associate Curator of Anthropology, Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History, 2559 Puesta del Sol Rd, Santa Barbara, CA 93105:

Since, in the June 1993 Newsletter, you mentioned Barbara Bocek's Costanoan ethnobotany paper in Economic Botany, you might be interested to know of my paper on Chumash ethnobotany, patterned after hers, which appeared in the same journal in 1990. If you'd care to add it to the Harrington Bibliography in a future issue of the Newsletter, I'd be delighted. [See the citation in the bibliography section below. - Ed.] Incidentally, it's often surprising to learn what colleagues in related fields find "obscure." Economic Botany is an international journal with a circulation in the thousands, and contains many interesting articles on relationships between indigenous peoples and plants. It, like Bocek's fine paper, deserves greater attention within the broadly defined anthropological community.

* Darrell Johnston, 8142 Major Circle #B, Huntington Beach, CA 92647:

My wife Sonia and I learned about the Harrington Conference Newsletter from the article by Leanne Hinton in News from Native California. When we received copies, and learned that our language (Acagchemen, or Juaneño) had been extensively recorded on disc by Harrington, we were both taken aback. For many years we believed that our language was almost entirely gone, and that only a few words and songs were still remembered. Through your Newsletter we got in contact with Jack Marr, who had helped make the recordings of our language, and with James Glenn at the Smithsonian. After letting James Glenn know of our interest in our language, he sent us a complete list of the California tribes whose languages were recorded on disc and cylinder by Harrington. He also let us know which of these recordings the Smithsonian has transferred to tape and which have not yet been transcribed. Unfortunately, the 145 or more aluminum discs of Acagchemen have not been put on tape to date. My wife and I, together with other people, are currently making efforts to have tapes made of as many of the discs as possible.


By the wide-winding Seco...

(These verses in praise of the Southwest Museum- JPH at his most grandiloquent - were found in a letter to C. F. Lummis dated December 27, 1927, and were published in the museum's magazine, The Masterkey, vol. 31, p. 137, 1957.)

By the wide-winding Seco
	Twixt Sierra and sea
Stands our temple of science
	On its hill, proud and free,
Our shrine of devotion,
	The hope of each heart
That loves the vast Southland
	Its science and art.

Be it treasure and trinkets
	Of a race fading fast,
Be it flowers and creatures
	Through devotion amassed,
Be it each of a hundred
	Luresome lines little known
It shall here find its lover
	And be studied and shown.

My heart leaps with gladness
	Whenever I see
The Southwest Museum
	On its hill, proud and free.
Through travels and trammels
	Let us come to its aid
And be loyal out-workers
	Of a plan clever-laid.

Harrington and the Navajo Writing System

One of Harrington's most lasting achievements is the alphabetic writing system that is used to write Navajo. Introduced by the B.I.A. in the 1930's as the standard orthography for all official purposes, it quickly supplanted all other writing systems for the language, including the phonemic orthography that Edward Sapir and Father Berard Haile used in their publications. Harrington's role in the development of modern Navajo writing has recently been described by Robert W. Young, the dean of Navajo linguists (and, long ago, Harrington's assistant), in "The Evolution of Written Navajo: An Historical Sketch" (Journal of Navajo Education 10, no. 3, Spring 1993, pp. 46-55):

In 1936, Willard W. Beatty was appointed as Director of the Division of Education in the Bureau of Indian Affairs. He immediately recognized the educational potential of literacy in the Navajo language, not only as a means with which to accelerate the learning process for children who entered school unable to speak English, but for the non-English speaking adult population, as well.

However, Beatty rejected all of the existing orthographies as unsuitable for use where both children and adults were learning to read and write English. Special letters [such as cË, sË, ©, », etc.] could not be readily produced on a typewriter. Moreover, use of c for sh, tc for ch and x for h were deemed confusing, in view of the different values assigned to them in English. Beatty decided to seek a Navajo orthography in which the letters were as nearly as possible similar in form and phonetic value in both Navajo and English (e.g., ch in Navajo chin/English chin, dz in English adze/Navajo 'ádazz, j in English Joe/Navajo jó, ts in English its/Navajo ntsaa).

Accordingly, John P. Harrington, a linguist and ethnologist employed by the Bureau of Ethnology in the Smithsonian Institution, was retained by the Bureau of Indian Affairs to devise a suitable orthography, and to prepare primers and other texts for use in teaching written Navajo. Harrington, in turn, retained me. In 1936, I was working on the Navajo language at the University of New Mexico with Adolph Dodge Bitanny, a native speaker and fellow student at the University. I moved to Fort Wingate in 1937, where I continued my studies with the assistance of another native speaker, William Morgan, Sr. Morgan, Harrington, and I collaborated to produce an orthography that met Beatty's specifications.

Oliver LaFarge, a popular writer of the period, was the author of a novel entitled Laughing Boy, a story that traced the painful adventures of a Navajo schoolboy, torn from home and family, and forced to attend a distant boarding school. On the premise that LaFarge was knowledgeable about the Navajo, he was enlisted to pass judgment on the suitability of the new orthographic system. He gave it his blessing, and for a time it was known as the Harrington-LaFarge Alphabet. However, soon after its introduction it became known simply as "the government system" (p. 52-53).

To help introduce the new writing system, the B.I.A. introduced a series of bilingual children's stories into Reservation schools, the English versions written by Ann Clark, the Navajo by Harrington and Young. These include: Little Herder in Autumn. 'Aak'eedgo na'nilkaadí yázhí (1940); Who Wants to Be a Prairie Dog? Háisha' t'áák'ad dlqq silii? (1940); Little Herder in Summer. Shi'igo na'nilkaadí yázhí (1942); and Little Herder in Winter. Haigo na'nilkaadí yázhí (1942).

After the early 1940's Harrington dropped out of active involvement in Navajo literacy work, leaving it in the hands of Young and his Navajo colleague, William Morgan. Both Young and Morgan are still active, and recently published their fourth major dictionary of Navajo, Analytic Lexicon of Navajo (1992).

Collections of Harrington Manuscripts in Locations Other than the NAA

* American Philosophical Society Library, Philadelphia

The Library of the American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia, has some correspondence and manuscripts of Harrington's. These are found in two collections: the Franz Boas Collection, and the J. Alden Mason Papers. Boas, as the central figure in American Indian linguistics for over 50 years, had an extensive - though never warm - correspondence with Harrington (#1877 below). As the chair of the ACLS Committee on American Native Languages, which funded some of Harrington's Karuk research in the late 1920s, Boas was the recipient of Harrington's (very incomplete) effort at writing a grammar of that language (# 1878). Harrington's relationship with J. Alden Mason, a distinguished Andean archaeologist at the University of Pennsylvania, largely involved Harrington's work on the Handbook of South American Indians. Among Mason's papers is correspondence with Harrington on South American linguistics (#4690 & #4744) and nine papers on various South American languages.

The American Indian collections at the APS are catalogued in: A Guide to Manuscripts Relating to the American Indian in the Library of the American Philosophical Society, compiled by John E. Freeman (APS, 1966); and A Supplement to A Guide to Manuscripts Relating to the American Indian in the Library of the American Philosophical Society, compiled by Daythal Kendall (APS, 1982).

1877. Correspondence with Franz Boas [1906-1930]. L. 44 items. Concerns particularly his study of Karok linguistics for American Council of Learned Societies' Committee on American Native Languages; work for Bureau of American Ethnology on Tewa (Tanoan); mention of Wintun and Chimariko studies. [31] (Freeman 1966:209] [Franz Boas Correspondence.]

1878. Karuk grammar [ca. 1930]. Typed D. 70L. Incomplete. Sections on the numeral (methods of counting various things, arithmetical operations), interjections; the adjective, and free translation of a Karuk text. [30(H4.1)] Cf. Harrington 1930:121. (Freeman 1966:210) [Franz Boas Collection of American Indian linguistics.]

4183. Affiliation of the Cholon [Andean] language; n.d. T.D. 85 pp. Includes: grammatical sketch of the language; some 'comparisons' with Quechua, Pomo, and Chimariko; one page of John Alden Mason's comments. [4017(ling. #2)] (Kendall 1982: 35) [J. A. Mason Papers.]

4434. Jibaro epitome; n.d. T.D. 12 pp. Re: the orthography used in the grammar by Father Juan Ghinassi; the name Jibaro; the accent in Jivaro. [4017(ling.#2)] (Kendall 1982: 61) [J. A. Mason Papers.]

4471. Cocama epitome; n.d. T.D. 5 pp. Gives phonetic inventory and discusses some features of phonetics, nouns, and pronouns without any examples. [4017(ling #2)] (Kendall 1982:63) [J. A. Mason Papers.]

4689. Adjective derivational suffixes of Quechua; n.d. T.D. 9 pp. A listing of suffixes with brief comments; one slip of Mason's comments. [4017(ling. #2)] (Kendall 1982:88) [J. A. Mason Papers.]

4690. Correspondence with John Alden Mason; Nov. 6, 1941-Oct. 11, 1948. T.L.S. 33 pp. Re: Harrington's work on the Hokan nature of Quechua; Pima-Papago. [4017(C19)] (Kendall 1982:88) [J. A. Mason Papers.]

4691. The nominal derivational suffixes of Quechua; 1944 (?). T.D. 32 pp. Includes: a list of the suffixes with examples; a brief discussion by Harrington; Mason's comments. [4017(ling. #2)] (Kendall 1982:88) [J. A. Mason Papers.]

4692. (with LUIS VALCARCEL). Grammarlets of the Quechua and Cocama languages; n.d. T.D. 50 pp. Includes: grammatical sketch of Quechua; very brief sketch of Cocama. [4017(ling. #2)] (Kendall 1982:88) [J. A. Mason Papers.]

4743. Affiliation of Witoto, Miranya and Guaranian; 1944 (?). T.D. ca. 110 pp. Includes: Harrington's text comparing vocabulary items (with Guaranian represented by Cocama); Mason's comments. [4017(ling. #2)] (Kendall 1982:93-4) [J. A. Mason Papers.]

4744. Correspondence with John Alden Mason; May 19, 1943-June 21, 1944. T.L. and L.S. ca. 55L. Most are from Harrington to Mason in regard to Harrington's work for Mason on the Handbook of South American Indians. [4017(ling. #2)] (Kendall 1982:94) [J. A. Mason Papers.]

4745. South American linguistics: Miranya, Witoto, Tupi-Guarani affiliations; 1943. T.D. and L.S. 11 pp. Discusses hypothesized relationships among the languages. [4017(ling. #2)] (Kendall 1982:94) [J. A. Mason Papers.]

4869. Uru-Puquina; 1943. T.L. and D. 22 pp. Expresses belief that Uru-Puquina is Arawakan, that Campa and Mojo are related to Uru-Puquina; discusses the position of Uru in the Inca Empire, the distribution of Uru, and works on Uru and Arawak. [4017(ling. #2)] (Kendall 1982:105) [J. A. Mason Papers.]

* Yosemite National Park Museum

The Frank F. Latta Collection: Correspondence and Papers related to John P. Harrington.

Frank Latta (1897-1983) was a California school teacher who devoted much of his life to studying and writing about the Yokuts Indians of the southern Central Valley. A hard-working but non-academic scholar, Latta had much in common with Harrington, and the two became friends. They corresponded frequently, especially in their latter years, and Harrington's last published writing was a preface to one of Latta's books. After Latta's death, his ethnographic and linguistic papers were acquired by the Yosemite National Park Museum. A typescript catalogue of the collection, compiled by curator Craig Bates, is available from the Museum (P. O. Box 577, Yosemite National Park, CA 95389). A section of the collection is devoted to correspondence and other papers relating to Harrington. Regarding their relationship, Bates writes (ms. p.30):

Harrington and Latta had a long and close relationship, because both approached their ethnographic studies in the same way. Latta used Harrington and his work as something of a model for his own, checking language problems with Harrington as well as other ethnographic collections. . . . Their affinity for Yokuts people and their languages was expressed in the Yokuts names they used for each other: Harrington addressed Latta as Wee-chee'-tee ('man with the little sticks', i.e., pencils) while Latta addressed Harrington as Wah'-aht No'-no ('long fellow').

The Harrington-related materials include the following files (the arrangement is Latta's):

1. Correspondence with Awona Harrington, 1963-80, on Harrington legacy, papers, publications. Includes a copy of July 5, 1920, letter of Harrington to J. W. Fewkes highly critical of A. L. Kroeber's manuscript for BAE Bulletin 78, Handbook of the Indians of California.

2. Letter from Marjorie Cummins, 1977, including a review of Carobeth Laird's Encounter With an Angry God; ms. fragment by Latta on Harrington.

3. Typescripts and ms. of Latta's "Brief Biographical Sketch of the Life of Dr. John Peabody Harrington." [Published in Latta's Tailholt Tales, 1976, pp. 303-307.]

4. Letters to Harrington from Latta, 1957-58, on Yokuts ethnographic subjects; Harrington's notes from interviews with Henry Lawrence and Josie Alonzo.

5. Correspondence between Harrington and Latta, 1957-60, sharing ethnographic information; Harrington's comments and foreword for Tailholt Tales; correspondence between Latta and Awona Harrington, 1976; Latta's biographical sketch of Harrington; copies of Harrington's obituaries and memorials.

6. Photographs of Harrington in the field for use in Latta's Tailholt Tales.

7. Brief correspondence about Harrington between Latta and Travis Hudson (Santa Barbara Natural History Museum), 1979-80.

8. Letters from Dr. S. Mont Whitson on Harrington papers, 1978.


Glenn, James R. 1991. "John Peabody Harrington." Pp. 270-272 in: International Dictionary of Anthropologists, edited by Christopher Winters for the Library-Anthropology Research Group. (Garland Reference Library of the Social Sciences, no. 638. New York and London: Garland Publishing.) [A concise biographical sketch of our man.]

Lang, Julian (translator). 1994. Ararapikva: Traditional Karuk Indian Literature from Northwestern California. Heyday Books (Box 9145, Berkeley, CA 94709). 112 pp. $30 (hardcover) / $10.95 (paper). [Julian Lang extracted three of the stories in this splendid collection from Harrington's Karuk notes (collected between 1925 and 1929 - see Papers of JPH [microfilm] volume 2, reels 6-19; Guide to the Fieldnotes vol. 2, pp. 29-49). A fourth ("What Will Those Who Come After Us Do") was previously published in JPH's major work on this group Tobacco Among the Karuk (Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 94, 1932). The longest narrative ("A Trip to Indian Heaven") comes from the notes of the Danish phonetician, Hans Jørgen Uldall, who visited the Karuk in 1932. Lang, a Karuk tribal scholar who has been immersed in JPH's Karuk materials for several years, has skillfully edited the texts - retranscribing the Karuk in the practical spelling system now used by the tribe - and has provided them with both interlinear word-by-word glosses and sentence-by-sentence literary translations. Lang's 20-page introduction includes a survey of traditional Karuk culture. A cassette tape of Lang reading the texts is available from the publisher.]

Timbrook, Jan. 1990. "Ethnobotany of Chumash Indians, California, Based on Collections by John P. Harrington." Economic Botany 44(2), pp. 236-253. [Data on knowledge and uses of plants in Chumash culture, as reconstructed from JPH's extensive unpublished material, and modeled on Bocek's similar study Costanoan ethnobotany. T. summarizes descriptions of plant usages from JPH's field notes and specimen labels, and gives the common names in Spanish and in the three Chumashan languages in which plant names were recorded, Barbareño, Ineseño, and Ventureño. ]

Walker, Phillip L., & Travis Hudson. 1993. Chumash Healing: Changing Health and Medical Practices in an American Indian Society. Malki Museum Press (11-795 Fields Rd., Banning, CA 92220). 161 pp. $16.95 (hardcover) / $12.95 (paper). [A compilation of information on the traditional medical and healing practices of the Chumash, drawn from a wide range of sources (archaeological and rock art data, historical accounts, ethnographic studies), but primarily from Harrington's voluminous notes. Hudson, who was curator of anthropology at the Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History and an expert on JPH's documentation of Chumash culture, began the work in the 1970's, leaving an unfinished manuscript at his death in 1985; Walker, a physical anthropologist at UC-Santa Barbara who has studied diet and disease among the pre-contact Chumash, finished the book. JPH obtained much of his information on Chumash healing from his early work with Fernando Librado (d. 1915), other aspects of which Hudson summarized in Breath of the Sun: Life in Early California, as Told by a Chumash Indian, Fernando Librado, to John P. Harrington (Malki Museum Press, 1979).]


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The Harrington Handbook Plans for developing a Handbook for Users of the J. P. Harrington Papers, originally broached at the Santa Barbara meeting in 1992, were discussed further at the Smithsonian meeting last November. It was decided that an overall outline of the Handbook would be developed and distributed to the Conference mailing list during 1994, and preliminary drafts of one or more sections would be distributed in loose-leaf form. These materials are currently in preparation.